Course: Population Change and Public Health

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Schedule


Topic Activities
Population Size, Growth, and Demographic Transition

Key topics covered:

  • Sources of population data
  • Demographic transition
  • World population growth: 1750-2050
  • World population growth: future prospects
  • Demographic processes affecting population growth
  • Measuring Population growth

Upon completion of this module, the student should be able to:

  • List the historical and current sources of population data
  • Describe population/demographic balancing equation
  • Compare and analyze the importance of different processes affecting population change
  • Define, calculate and differentiate between crude rate of natural increase and population growth rate
  • Define and distinguish features of population growth (demographic trends) in different time periods and different regions (in time and space)
  • Define 'demographic transition'

Slides (PDF; 1.07 MB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (13.4 MB)

Part B (7.93 MB)

Part C (11.7 MB)

Exercise 1

Population Structure, Composition and Distribution

Key topics covered:

  • Population distribution and implications
  • Demographic determinants of age-sex structure
  • Measures and graphical tools to describe the age-sex structure of the population
  • Three general profiles of age-sex composition
  • Replacement reproduction and Population momentum
  • Implications of age structure
  • Dependency ratios

Upon completion of this module, the student should be able to:

  • Define population density
  • Contrast and describe population distribution in developed and developing countries, rural vs urban and examine its implications
  • Identify (describe) the determinants of age-sex structure
  • List the measures used to describe the age-sex structure of the population
  • Interpret the population pyramids
  • Describe and interpret replacement reproduction
  • Define and explain the demographic changes associated with population momentum and explain how the initial age structure affects it

Slides (PDF; 191 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (15.9 MB)

Part B (9.45 MB)

Exercise 2

Social and Economic Consequences of Population Growth

Key topics covered:

  • Theories on population and development interrelations
  • Economic, social and environmental consequences- relationship between demographic variables, poverty and affluence
  • Population, agriculture and environment nexus (environmental consequences)

Upon completion of this module, the student should be able to:

  • Describe and critique the existing theories on population and development interrelations
  • Evaluate the existing evidence for economic, social and environmental consequences of population growth
  • Identify and analyze other exogenous factors perpetuating/mitigating the effects of population growth

 

Slides (PDF; 506 MB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (8.64 MB)

Part B (13.5 MB)

Exercise 3

Fertility and Reproduction: Data Sources and Measurement

Key topics covered:

  • Definitions
  • Measures of fertility: from crude to specific measures
  • Measures of reproductivity : Gross and net reproduction rate

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Interpret and calculate indicators of fertility
  • Interpret and calculate indicators of reproductivity

Slides (PDF; 222 MB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (11.3 MB)

Part B (9.63 MB)

Part C (7.04 MB)

Exercise 4

Fertility Change: Trends, Differentials, Determinants and Theories

Key topics covered:

  • Fertility trends and differentials in developed and developing countries
    Proximate and distal determinants of fertility
  • Classical Demographic Transition theory
  • Sociological theories for fertility decline
  • Economic theories for fertility decline
  • Critique of classical and sociological theories

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Compare and contrast fertility trends and differentials in developed and developing countries
  • Describe the classical demographic theory and evaluate the existing empirical evidence in favor or against it
  • Describe and critique Sociological and economic theories to explain the observed fertility trends

Slides (PDF; 1.05 MB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (7.4 MB)

Part B (13.7 MB)

Part C (8.31 MB)

Part D (12.6 MB)

Exercise 5

Mortality and morbidity: Data Sources and Measurement

Key topics covered:

  • Measurement of mortality: sources of data
  • Crude mortality indicators
  • Specific mortality indicators: age specific mortality rate, cause specific mortality rate
  • Special mortality indicators: Infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate
  • Sources of data and measurement of morbidity

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the existing sources of data for measuring mortality and morbidity
  • Interpret and calculate basic and specific mortality indicators
  • Interpret and calculate morbidity indicators
  • Critically examine the trends and differential in mortality over time and space and their implications

Slides (PDF; 329 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (7.12 MB)

Part B (24.3 MB)

Part C (5.31 MB)

Part D (8.7 MB)

Exercise 6

Mortality Decline: Trends, Differentials, Theories and Prospects

Key topics covered:

  • Trends in mortality decline in developed and developing countries
  • Determinants of mortality decline: proximate and distal
  • Income and health: relationships and structural shift
  • Maternal education and health
  • Population theories of mortality decline: Epidemiological transition and epidemiological polarization
  • Compression of mortality and morbidity

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • List proximate and distal determinants of mortality
  • Analyze the relationship between income and health
  • Describe, interpret and critique the existing theories of mortality decline

Slides (PDF; 619 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (12 MB)

Part B (9.3 MB)

Part C (9.8 MB)

Exercise 7

Migration: Sources of Data, Measurement, Trends in Time and Space, Theories and Implications

Key topics covered:

  • Migration: definition
  • Migration: basic indicators and their calculation
  • Migration and population growth rate
  • International migration: overview
  • International migration in Africa
  • Migration theories: Early theories, Neo-classical economic theories, and Socio-political theories
  • International migration: prospects and challenges

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Identify different sources of data for measuring migration
  • Define and calculate basic measures of migration
  • Describe and interpret the impact of net migration on population growth rate in different setting
  • Describe, interpret and critique the existing theories of migration
  • Describe recent trends in international migration all over the world, with particular reference to SSA

Slides (PDF; 200 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (11.3 MB)

Part B (10.9 MB)

Exercise 8

Urbanization: Measurement, Theories, Trends, and Prospects

Key topics covered:

  • Urbanization: definitions
  • Urbanization: basic indicators and their calculation
  • World urbanization trends
  • Urbanization in SSA
  • Demographic impact of urbanization
  • Impact of urbanization on health, environment, economy
  • Options for dealing with urbanization

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Define and calculate basic measures of urbanization
  • Describe trends and issues in urbanization in SSA context and at the global level
  • Describe and analyze the demographic, social, health, enviornmental and economic impact of urbanization

Slides (PDF; 197 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (12.4 MB)

Part B (10.5 MB)

Exercise 9

Reproductive Health: Biological Processes and Contraceptive Technology

Key topics covered:

  • Male reproductive tract: anatomy
  • Hormonal basis of male reproduction
  • Female reproductive tract: anatomy
  • Hormonal basis of female reproduction
  • Safe period and fertile period
  • Methods of contraception: Classification, mechanism of action, effectiveness, side effects, and advantages

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Describe anatomy of male and female reproductive organs
  • Describe the hormonal events underlying male and female reproductive life cycle
  • Define 'safe period'
  • Describe the mechanism of action, advantages and disadvantages of different contraceptive methods

Slides (PDF; 318 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (9.6 MB)

Part B (8.4 MB)

Exercise 10

Components of Reproductive Health

Key topics covered:

  • Definitions
  • Family planning and reproductive health
  • Safe motherhood and reproductive health
  • Reproductive tract infections: prevalence, etiology, programmatic options
  • HIV/AIDS: prevalence, demographic, social and economic impact
  • Adolescent reproductive health
  • Unsafe abortion in SSA
  • Harmful traditional reproductive health practices
  • Gender and reproductive health

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Define reproductive health
  • Describe different components of reproductive health
  • Identify different reproductive health problems in SSA context
  • Describe different programmatic strategies for dealing with different reproductive health problems

Slides (PDF; 1.25 MB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (7.31 MB)

Part B (12.2 MB)

Part C (7.34 MB)

Part D (9.58 MB)

Part E (13.0 MB)

Exercise 11

Fertility and Infertility: Processes and Management

Key topics covered:

  • Definitions
  • Sources of data
  • Prevalence of infertility in SSA
  • Infertility: preventable and non-preventable causes
  • Infertility: treatment, management and programmatic strategies

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Describe different types of infertility
  • List sources of data to measure infertility
  • Describe different causes of infertility
  • Describe different programmatic strategies to deal with infertility

Slides (PDF; 181 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (16.4 MB)

Discussion Questions 12

Population Policies and Programs

Key topics covered:

  • Key components of population policies
  • Evolution of population policies in SSA
  • Population policies: Post ICPD shifts
  • Population policies on mortality and morbidity
  • Policies on population redistribution
  • Population related policies
  • Policy process
  • Population policies: ethical issues

Upon completion of this module, the student should be able to:

  • Define and distinguish between different types of population policies
  • Describe the key components of a population policy
  • Critically evaluate the evolution of population policies in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Describe the post ICPD shifts in population policies
  • Identify complementarities and contradictions between population policy and other policies of Government having demographic implications
  • Outline the policy process for the development of population policy and its importance
  • Describe different aspects of population policies

Slides (PDF; 221 KB)

MP3 Audio:

Part A (14.5 MB)

Part B (8.93 MB)

Part C (14.3 MB)

Part D (7.5 MB)

Discussion Questions 13