Course: Tropical Environmental Health

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Session Topic Activites
1 Course Outline

Overview of diseases associated with poor water supplies and sanitation; waterwashed diseases, waterborne diseases, waterassociated diseases; diseases associated with fecal contamination of the environment; water and sanitation as a fundamental need for human health.

1 Sanitation Lecture - Simple systems and their pitfalls(!); appropriate and inappropriate systems; examples that work, e.g. the Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine (VIP); the benefits of flue ventilation; the advantages of a wet/dry pit; simple methods of upgrading the superstructure; spiral vs. rectangular layout; door construction; discussion of practical construction methods.
2 Sanitation Lecture - Upgraded systems; the septic tank, methods of construction; soakaway principles and construction; pourflush latrine; advantages and costs of maintaining the water seal. Upgrading the VIP, water disposal, small bore effluent pipes, large bore pipes, oxidation ponds, ecological principles, problems which arise from communal facilities, breaks and spillages.
3 Water Supply Lecture - The water table, where it exists and how to determine its depth; advantages of using the water table as a source of domestic water; simple methods of abstraction, wells and hand pumps; problems of contamination and how to avoid them; shallow wells, pump designs, strengths and weaknesses, practical considerations.
4 Water Supply

Where does water come from? Surface water supplies, problems and solutions; the small farm dam how to construct one; well drilling the von der Rigg; spring and groundwater protection; urban water supply and sanitation; water vending; roof catchment systems.

5 The Water of Ayole Video - A study in the provision of water supply in a village in Togo. Following the video there will be a class discussion based upon the material presented with lessons learned and suggestions for an improved, sustainable outcome. The class will be broken into working groups that will each strategies for sustaining local water facilities.
6 Water Quality Issues for Developing Countries Lecture
Guest Lecturers: Prof. K. Schwab, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, JHBSPH, and Jay Graham, Dept of Environmental Health Science, JHBSPH

Urbanization and Associated Water Problems

Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries

Lecture 1:
Guest Lecturer: Prof J. Boland Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, JHU

Lecture 2:
Guest Lecturer: Prof. A. Geyh, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, JHBSPH

8 Solid Waste: Problems and Disposal Lecture - The problem in Urban Ghana. There will be a discussion following the presentations and people will be expected to consider the issues and discuss likely suggestions as to health concerns and how the systems can be improved.

Presentations by members of the class that have had experienced issues of Tropical Public Health Presentations will be made by several students who can add personal experiences to issues addressed during the term. These points will be used to stress the overall importance of the problems facing Public Health Administrators in developing countries and demonstrate the practical value of the material presented during this course.

Class Discussion