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Topic Readings
1. Enhancing Humane Science: Improving Animal Research - Opening Book

  • Russel WMS, Burch RL, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 1959, UWAF, London
2. Introduction to Humane Science Books

  • Regan T, The case for animal rights, 1993, University of California Press, California
  • Russel WMS, Burch RL, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 1959, UWAF, London
  • Singer P, Animal liberation, 1975, Avon
  • McKeown T, The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage or Nemesis?, 1979, Princeton University Press
  • Kuhn T, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962, University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Journal Articles

  • Aldhous P, Coghlan A, Copley J, Animal experiments -- where do you draw the line?: Let the people speak, New Scientist, May 1999, vol.162 (2187), page 26-31
  • (The Economist 1996) - e.g. absolute research freedom versus scientific anti-vivisectionism


  • Bentham, The Grand Phrase of Animal welfare, 1789
  • 1969, Nobel-prize winning immunologist Sir Peter Medawar
  • Growth in HSUS income from 1980 to 1998 - a few others, such as PETA, show similar growth patterns
  • FBR spokesperson, Boston Globe editorial, 1999; Dr Colin Blakemore at 1998 PRIM&R meeting (HSUS)
3. Rodent Surgery: Quality Matters Books

  • Carpenter JW, Mashima TY, Rupiper DJ, Exotic Animal Formulary, 2nd Edition, 2001, Avian Publications, Minneapolis MN
  • Hillyer EV, Quesenberry KE, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents, Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 1997, WB Saunders
  • Kohn D, Wixson S, Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animal, 2002, W.White & G.Benson
  • Krinke, GJ, The Laboratory Rat, 2000, Academic, San Diego, Calif.; London
  • McCurnin DM, Bassert JM, Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians. 5th Edition, 2002, WB Saunders
  • Wayneforth HB, Flecknell PA, Experimental and Surgical Technique in the Rat, 2nd Edition, 1994, Academic Press, London; San Diego

Journal Articles

  • Bradfield, JF, Schachtman TR, McLaughlin RM, Steffan EK, Behavioral and Physiologic Effects of Inapparent Wound Infection in Rats, Laboratory Animal Science, vol. 42(6), 1992, page 572-578
  • Cooper DM, McIver R, Bianco R, The thin blue line: a review and discussion of aseptic technique and postprocedural infections in rodents, Contemporary Topics Laboratory Animal Science, vol. 39(6), 2000, page 27-32
  • Cunliffe-Beamer TL, Applying Principles of Aseptic Surgery to Rodents, AWIC Newsletter, vol. 4(2), 1993, page 3-6
4. Post-Procedural Care Journal Articles

  • Anna I, Olsson S, Dahlborn K, Improving Housing Conditions for Laboratory Mice: A Review of 'Environmental Enrichment', Laboratory Animals, 2002, vol. 36, page 243-270
  • Cue CM, Baamonde C, Lumbreras M, Paz J, Davisson MT, Schmidt C, Dierssen M, Florez J, Differential Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Behavior and Learning of Male and Female Ts65Dn Mice, a model for Down Syndrome, Behavioural Brain Research, 2002, vol. 134, page 185-200
  • Diamond MC, Rosenzweig MR, Bennett EL, Lindner B, Lyon L, Effects of Environmental enrichment and Impoverishment on Rat Cerebral Cortex, Journal of Neurobiology, 1972, vol. 3, page 47-64
  • Faherty CJ, Kerley D, Smeyne RJ, A Golgi-Cox Morphological Analysis of Neuronal Changes Induced by Environmental Enrichment, Developmental Brain Research, 2003, vol. 141, page 55-61
  • Faverjon S, Silveira DC, Fu DD, Cha BH, Akman C, Hu Y, Holmes GL, Beneficial effects of Enriched Environment following Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats, Neurology , 2002, vol.59, page 1356-1364
  • Guilarte TR, Toscano CD, McGlothan JL, Weaver SA,   Environmental Enrichment Reverses Cognitive and Molecular Deficits Induced by Developmental Lead Exposure, Annals of Neurology, 2003, vol. 53, page 50-56
  • Environmental Enrichment Reverses Cognitive and Molecular Deficits Induced by -Developmental Lead Exposure
  • Hockly E, Cordery PM, Woodman B, Mahal A, van Dellen A, Blakemore C, Lewis CM, Hannan AJ, Bates GP, Environmental Enrichment Slows Disease Progression in R6/2 Huntington's Disease Mice, Annals of Neurology, 2002, vol.51, page 235-242
  • Ickes BR, Pham TM, Sanders LA, Albeck DS, Mohammed AH, Granholm A, Long-Term Environmental Enrichment Leads to Regional Increases in Neurotrophin Levels in Rat Brain, Experimental Neurology, 2000, vol. 164 (1), pag 45-52
  • Kempermann G, Kuhn HG, Gage FH, Experience-Induced Neurogenesis in the Senescent Dentate Gyrus, The Journal of Neuroscience, 1998, vol. 18, page 3206-3212
  • Nilsson M, Perfilieva E, Ulf J, Orwar O, Eriksson PS, Enriched Environmental Increases Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Dentate Gyrus and Improves Spatial Memory, Journal of Neurobiology, 1999, vol.39, page 569-578
  • Pham TM, Ickes B, Albeck D, Soderstrom S, Granholm A, Mohammed AH. Changes in Brain Nerve Growth Factor Levels and Nerve Growth Factor Receptors in Rats Exposed to Environmental Enrichment for One Year, Neuroscience, 1999, vol. 94, page 279-286
  • Pinaud R, Penner MR, Robertson HA, Currie RW, Upregulation of the Immediate Early Gene Arc in the Brain of Rats Exposed to Environmental Enrichment: Implications for Molecular Plasticity, Molecular Brain Research, 2001, vol. 91, page 50-56
  • Praag HV, Kempermann G, Gage FH, Neural Consequences of Environmental Enrichment. Neuroscience, 2000, vol. 1, page 191-198
  • Rampon C, Jiang CH, Dong H, Tang Y, Lockhart DJ, Schultz PG, Tsien JZ, Hu Y, Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Gene Expression in the Brain, PNAS, 2000, vol. 97, page 12880-12884
  • Rosenzweig MR, Rat Brain: Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Wet and Dry Weights, Science, 1969, vol. 163, page 825-826
  • Torasdotter M, Metsis M, Henriksson BG, Winblad B, Mohammed AH, Environmental Enrichment Results in Higher Levels of Nerve Growth Factor mRNA in Rat Visual Cortex and Hippocampus, Behavioural Brain Research, 1998, vol. 93, page 83-90
  • Tsai PP, Pachowsky U, Stelzer HD, Hackbarth H, Impact of Environmental Enrichment in Mice. 1: Effects of Housing Conditions on Body Weight, Organ Weights and Haematology in Different Strains, Laboratory Animals, 2002, vol. 36, page 411-419
  • Turner CA, Yang MC, Lewis MH. Environmental Enrichment: Effects on Stereotyped behavior and regional Neuronal Metabolic Activity. Brain Research 938: 15-21, 2002
  • Willams BM, Luo Y, Ward C, Redd K, Gibson R, Kuczaj SA, McCoy JG, Environmental Enrichment: Effects on Spatial Memory and Hippocampal CREB Immunoreactivity, Physiology & Behavior, 2001, vol.73, page 649-658
  • Yeoman B, Can we Trust Research Done with lab mice?, Discover, 2003, vol.24 , page 64-72
5. Pain and Distress: Measurement, Avoidance, Relief Books

  • Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals,   Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, 1992, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Hawk TC, Leary SL, Formulary for Laboratory Animals, 1995, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa
  • Kohn DF, Wixson, SK, White WJ, Benson GJ eds., Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 1997, Academic Press, New York, NY
  • Merskey H, Bogduk, N (edited by), A sample list of frequently used terms from: Classification of Chronic Pain, Second Edition, IASP Task Force on Taxonomy, 1994, IASP Press, Seattle, page 209-214

Journal Articles

  • Autenried AMP, Rettich A, Spaeni, D, R�licke T, Optimization of Intraperitoneal Injection Anesthesia in Mice: Drugs, Dosages, Adverse Effects, and Anesthesia Depth, Comparative Medicine, vol. 51(5), October 2001, page 443-456
  • Buettow BS, Chen LI, Maggio-Price L, Swisshelm K, Peritonitis in Nude Mice in a Xenograft Study, Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, vol. 38 (6), November 1999, page 47-49
  • Gades NM, Danneman PJ, Wixson SK, Tolley EA, The Magnitude and Duration of the Analgesic Effect of Morphine, Butorphanol, and Buprenorphine in Rats and Mice, Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, vol.39 (2), March 2000, page 8-13
  • Huang Guo-Ying, Linask KK, Doppler Echocardiographic Analysis of Effects of Tribromoethanol Anesthesia on Cardiac Function in the Mouse Embryo: A Comparison with Pentobarbital, Comparative Medicine, vol. 48(2), April 1998, page 206-209
  • Jong WMC, Zuurbier CJ, Winter de RTJ, Heuvel van de DAF, Reitsma PH, Cate ten H, Ince C, Fentanyl-fluanisone-midazolam Combination Results in More Stable Hemodynamics than does Urethane-a-chloralose and 2,2,2-tribromoethanol in Mice, Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, vol. 41(3), May 2002, page 28-32
  • Kiatchoosakun S, Kirkpatrick D, Hoit BD, Effects of Tribromoethanol Anesthesia on Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Mice, Comparative Medicine, vol. 51(1), February 2001, page 26-29
  • Laike ST, Stewart A, Martin WJ, Evaluation of Postoperative Analgesia in a Rat Model of Incisional Pain, Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, vol. 42(1), January 2003, page 28-34
  • Martin LBE, Thompson AC, Martin T, Kristal MB, Analgesic Efficacy of Orally Administered Buprenorphine in Rats, Comparative Medicine, vol. 51(1), February 2001, page 43-48
  • Reid WC, Paige Carmichael K, Srinivas S, Bryant JL, Pathologic Changes Associated with Use of Tribromoethanol (Avertin) in the Sprague Dawley Rat, Comparative Medicine, vol. 49(6), December 1999, page 665-670
  • Stewart LS, Martin WJ, Influence of Postoperative Analgesics on the Development of Neuropathic Pain in Rats, Comparative Medicine, vol. 53 (1), February 2003, page 29-36
  • Thompson JS, Brown SA, Khurdayan, Amenah Zeynalzadedan V, Sullivan PG, Scheff SW, Early Effects of Tribromoethanol, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbitol, and Isoflurane Anesthesia on Hepatic and Lymphoid Tissue in ICR Mice, Comparative Medicine, vol. 52(1), February 2002, page 63-70
  • Ullman-Cullere MH, Foltz CJ, Body Condition Scoring: A Rapid and Accurate Method for Assessing Health Status in Mice,. Laboratory Animal Science, vol. 49(3), June 1999, page 319-323

Internet sites

Other resources

  • Alicia Karas, Identification and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Rodents, CAAT Refinement Program Project, May 8, 2003, Johns Hopkins University
  • Greg Boivin, Identification and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Rodents, CAAT Refinement Program Project, May 8, 2003, Johns Hopkins University
  • Mouse Preparation: University of Washington, Seattle Washington - Rodent Handling and Restraint Training Program

Additional Books

  • Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals 1992, National Academy Press, Wahington, DC - http://www.nap.edu/catalog/1542.html
  • Flecknell P, Waterman-Pearson A (ed), Pain Management in Animals, 2000, WB Saunders
  • Gluckstein FP, Pain, anesthesia, and analgesia in common laboratory animals: June 1988 through October 1991: 474 citations / prepared by Fritz P. Gluckstein, Bethesda, Md, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, Reference Section; Washington, DC
  • Gonder JC, Smeby RR, Wolfe TL (ed), Performance standards and Animal Welfare: Definition, Application and Assesment Parts I&II, 1998, Scientist Center for Animal Welfare
  • Lord Soulsby, Morton D (ed), Pain: its nature and management in man and animals, 2000, International Congress and symposium series 246, FRAME
  • Morrison AR, Evans HL, Ator NA, Nakamura RK (ed), Methods and Welfare Considerations in Behavioral Research with Animals, report of a national institutes of health workshop, 2002, The National Institute of Mental health
  • National Resourch Council, Definition of Pain and distress and Reporting requirements for laboratory animals, Proceedings of the workshop held june 22, 2000, 2000, National Academy Press, Washington DC

Additional Journal Articles

7. Humane Endpoints in Animal Research Books

  • Guidance Document on the Recognition, Assessment, and Use of Clinical Signs as Humane Endpoints for Experimental Animals Used in Safety Evaluation. OECD Environmental Health and Safety Publications Series on Testing and Assessment. No. 19. Paris, November 2000. http://www.oecd.org/ehs/
  • Hendriksen CFM, Morton DB (ed), Humane Endpoints in Animal Experiments for Biomedical Research. Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-25 November 1998. Zeist, The Netherlands. The Royal Society of Medicine Press, London
  • National Research Council, Guide for the care and use of laboratory Animals, 1996, National Academy Press, Washington DC

Journal Articles

  • Advanced Physiological Monitoring in Rodents, 2002, ILAR Journal, vol.43(3)
  • Bioethics of Laboratory Animal Research, 1999, ILAR Journal, vol 40(1)
  • Experimental Design and Statistics in Biomedical Research, 2002, ILAR Journal, vol. 43(4)
  • Humane Endpoints for Animals Used in Biomedical Research and Testing, ILAR Journal, 2000, vol. 41(2)
  • Huwer H, Winning J, Vollmar B, Welter C, Menger MD, Schafers HJ, Model of chronic systolic and diastolic dysfunction after cryothermia-induced myocardial necrosis in rats, Comparative Medicine 2000, vol.50, page 385-390
  • Impact of Noninvasive Technology on Animal Research, 2001, ILAR Journal, 2001, vol. 42(3)
  • Krarup A, Chattopadhyay P, Bhattacharjee AK, Burge JR, Ruble GR, Evaluation of surrogate markers of impending death in the galactosamine-sensitized murine model of bacterial endotoxemia Laboratory Animal Science, 1999, vol. 49, page 545-550.
  • Louie A, Liu W, Liu QF, Sucke AC, Miller DA, Battles A, Miller MH, Predictive value of several signs of infection as surrogate markers for mortality in a neutropenic guinea pig model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. Laboratory Animal Science, 1997, vol. 47 (6), page 617-623
  • Morton DB, Clinical Scores to promote continuity of good care, ILAR Journal, 2000, vol.41, page 80-86
  • Shih IM, Torrance C, Sokoll LJ, Chan DW, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Assessing tumors in living animals through measurement of urinary beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, Nature Medicine. Jun 2000, 6(6), page 711-4
  • Ullman-Cullere MH, Foltz CJ, Body Condition Scoring: A Rapid and Accurate Method for Assessing Health Status in Mice. Laboratory Animal Science ,vol. 49(3), June 1999, page 319-323
  • Vlach KD, Boles JW, Stiles BG., Telemetric evaluation of body temperature and physical activity as predictors of mortality in a murine model of staphylococcal enterotoxic shock, Comparative Medicine, 2000, vol.50, page 160-166


Additional Books

Additional Journal Articles

  • Dragunsky E, Nomura T, Karpinski K, Furesz J, Wood DJ, Pervikov Y, Abe S, Kurata T, Vanloocke O, Karganova G, Taffs R, Heath A, Ivshina A, Levenbook I, Transgenic mice as an alternative to monkeys for neurovirulence testing of live oral poliovirus vaccine: validation by a WHO collaborative study, Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, May 16 2003, vol. 81(4), page 251-260
  • Hawkins P, Recognizing and assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals: a survey of current practice in the UK with recommendations, Laboratory Animals, October 2002, vol.36(4), page 378-395
  • Jegstrup I, Thon R, Hansen AK, Hoitinga MR, Characterization of transgenic mice--a comparison of protocols for welfare evaluation and phenotype characterization of mice with a suggestion on a future certificate of instruction, Laboratory Animals, January 2003, vol. 37(1), page1-9
  • Kramer K, Kinter LB, Evaluation and applications of radiotelemetry in small laboratory animals, Physiol Genomics, May 2003, vol. 13(3), page 197-205
  • Wright AJ, Phillpotts RJ, Humane endpoints are an objective measure of morbidity in Venezuelan encephalomyelitis virus infection of mice, Archives of Virology, 1998, vol. 143(6), page 1155-1162
8. Animal Welfare: The Five Freedoms Books

  • Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources Comission on Life Sciemce, National Research Council, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 1996, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.


  • D'Arbe M, Einstein R, Lavidis NA, Stressful Animal Housing Conditions and their Potential Effect on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Mice, American Journal of Physiological Regulatory Integrative Comparative Physiology, May 2002, vol. 282, R1422-R1428
  • Baumans V, Schlingmann F, Vonck M, Lith van H, Individually Ventilated Cages: Beneficial for Mice and Men?, Contemporary topics AALAS, January 2002, vol. 41 (1), page 13-19
  • Briese A, Sewerin K, Knierim U, Hartung J, Enriched cage systems for laying hens--legal minimum conditions and starting points for their scientific evaluation (Article in German), Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, March 2001, vol. 108 (3), page 105-109
  • Brown KJ, Grunberg NE, Effects of Housing on Male and Female Rats: Crowding Stresses Males But Calms Females , Physiology and Behavior, December 1995, vol.58 (6), page 1085-1089
  • Chmiel DJ Jr, Noonan M, Preference of laboratory rats for potentially enriching stimulus objects, Laboratory Animals, vol. 30 (2), April 1996, page 97-101
  • Engle MSJ, Ormsby I, Pawlowski S, Boivin GP, Croft J, Balish E, Doetschman T, Elimination of Colon Cancer in Germ-free Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1-deficient, Cancer Research, November 2002, vol. 62, page 6362-6366
  • Eveleigh JR, Murine cage density: cage ammonia levels during the reproductive performance of an inbred strain and two outbred stocks of monogamous breeding pairs of mice, Laboratory Animal, April 1993, vol. 27 (2), page 156-160
  • Guilarte TR, Toscano CD, McGlothan JL, Weaver SA, Environmental Enrichment Reverses Cognitive and Molecular Deficits Induced by Developmental Lead Exposure, Annals of Neurology, 2003, vol. 53 (1), page 50-56
  • Hunt PA, Koehler KE, Susiarjo M, Hodges CA, Ilagan A, Voigt RC, Thomas S, Thomas BF, Hassold TJ, Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female Mouse, Current Biology, April 2003, vol. 13, page 546-553
  • Jacobson SG, McInnes RR, Blinded by the light, Nature Genetics, 2002, vol. 32,(2), page 215-216
  • LaVail MM, Gorrin GM, Repari MA,   Strain Differences in sensitivity to light-induced photoreceptor degeneration in albino mice, Current Eye Research , June 1987, vol. 6 (6), page 825-834
  • Loo Van PL, Mol JA, Koolhaas JM, Van Zutphen BF, Baumans V, Modulation of aggression in male mice: influence of group size and cage size, Physiology and Behavior, April 2001, vol. 72 (5), page 675-683
  • Mazelis AG, Albert D, Crisa C, Fiore H, Parasaram D, Franklin B, Ginsberg-Fellner F, McEvoy RC, Relationship of stressful housing conditions to the onset of diabetes mellitus induced by multiple, sub-diabetogenic doses of streptozotocin in mice, Diabetes Research, December 1987, vol. 6 (4), page 195-200
  • Milligan SR, Sales GD, Khirnykh K, Sound levels in rooms housing laboratory animals: an uncontrolled daily variable, Physiology and Behavior, June 1993, vol. 53 (6), page 1067-1076
  • Newton WM, Environmental impact on laboratory animals, Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine (review), 1978, vol. 21, page 1-28
  • Olsson AS, Dahlborn K , Improved housing conditions for laboratory mice: a review of 'environmental enrichment.' Laboratory Animals, 2002, vol. 36, page 243-270
  • Pfaff J, Noise as an environmental problem in the animal house, Laboratory Animal (review), 1974, vol. 8 (3), page 347-354
  • Pfaff J, Stecker M, Loudness level and frequency content of noise in the animal house, Laboratory Animals, April 1976, vol.10 (2), page 111-117
  • Reeb-Whitaker CK, Paigen B, Beamer WG, Bronson RT, Churchill GA, Schweitzer IB, Myers DD, The Impact of Reduced Frequency of Cage Changes on the Health of Mice Housed in Ventilated Cages, Laboratory Animals, 2001, vol. 35, page 58-73
  • Semple-Rowland SL, Dawson WW, Retinal cyclic light damage threshold for albino rats, Laboratory Animal. Science, 1987, vol. 37 (3), page 289-298
  • Sharp JL, Zammit TG, Azar T, Lawson D, Stress-like Responses to Common Procedures in Male Rats Housed Alone or with Other Rats, Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, July 2002, vol. 41 (4), page 8-14
  • Silveira AC, Gilioli R, Oliveira ES , Bassani RA, Subsensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation in atria from rats infested with Syphacia sp, Laboratory Animals, 2003,vol. 37, page 63-67
  • Slaughter MR, Birmingham JM, Patel B, Whelan GA, Krebs-Brown AJ, Hockings PD, Osborne JA, Extended Acclimatization is Required to Eliminate Stress Effects of Periodic Blood Sampling Procedures on Vasoactive Hormones and Blood Volume in Beagle Dogs. Laboratory Animals, October 2002, vol.36, page 403-410
  • Spani D, Arras M, Konig B, Rulicke T, Higher heart rate of laboratory mice housed individually vs in pairs, Laboratory Animals, 2003, vol. 37, page 54-62
  • Toth LA, Oberbeck C, Straign CM, Frazer S, Rehg JE, Toxicity Evaluation of Prophylactic Treatments for Mites and Pinworms in Mice, Contemporary Topics Laboratory Animal Science, March 2000, vol. 39 (2), page 18-21
  • Tsai PP, Pachowsky U, Stelzer HD, Hackbarth H, Impact of environmental enrichment in mice. 1: effect of housing conditions on body weight, organ weights and haematology in different strains, Laboratory Animals, October 2002, vol. 36 (4), page 411-419
  • Tuli JS, Smith JA, Morton DB, Stress measurements in mice after transportation, Laboratory Animals, April 1995, vol.29 (2), page 132-138
  • VandeWoude S, Rollin M, Avery A, The Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Murine Immune Responses, Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 2002, vol. 41 (4), p 69
  • Van de Weerd HA, Baumans V, Evaluation of Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Mice, Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin, Spring 1999, vol. 9 (3-4)


Other resources

  • Charles River Seminar at Hopkins April 2003
  • Jankowsky J, et al Environmental Enrichment of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice Poster Ross 5.
11. In Vitro and Other Replacement Approaches Books

  • Stephens MS, The Significance of alternative techniques in biomedical research: an analysis of Nobel prize awards, In Fox MW and Mickley LD (eds): Advances in animal welfare science, Mithoff, Boston, 1987
  • Streibel BJ, Klaassen CD, Watkins JB, Casarett & Doull Essentials of toxicology, 2001, McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Russel WMS, Burch RL, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 1959, UWAF, London


SkinEthic, company, Nice France

12. Experimental Design, Basic Statistics, and Sample Size Determination Books

  • Festing, MFW et al, The Design of Animal Experiments; Reducing the use of animals in research through better experimental design, Laboratory Animal Handbooks no. 14, 2002, Laboratory Animals ltd, Royal Society of Medicine Press Limited
  • Freedman D, Pisani R, Purves R, 1997, Statistics, 3rd edition,   WW Norton & Co.
  • Oehlert GW, 2000, A First Course in Design and Analysis of Experiments, WH Freeman & Co
  • Samuels ML, Witmer JA, 2003, Statistics for the Life Sciences, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall
  • Course: Statistics for Laboratory Scientists (Biostatistics 140.615-616, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch. Pub. Health)

Journal Articles

  • Festing MFW, Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments, Laboratory Animals, 1994, vol. 28, page 212-221.
  • Festing MFW, Variation and experimental design, SCAW Newsletter, 1995, vol. 18(3), page 3-9.
  • Festing MFW, Guidelines for the design and statistical analysis of experiments in papers submitted to ATLA, ATLA, 2001, vol. 29, page 427-446.
  • Festing MFW, Lovell DP, Reducing the Use of Laboratory Animals in Toxicological Research and testing by better experimental Design, Journal of the Royal Statistic Society B, 58 (1), page 127-140
  • Mann MD, Crouse DA, Prentice ED, Appropriate animal numbers in biomedical research in light of animal welfare considerations.   Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, vol.41 (1), page 6-14