Course: Preventing Infant Mortality and Promoting the Health of Women, Infants, and Children

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Reading List (48 KB) This document contains a comprehensive list of all readings.

Session Topic Readings

Lecture 1

Introduction to the Problem of Infant Mortality


Black, R.E., Morris, S.S., Bryce, J. (2003) Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet. 361(9376):2226-34.

Hoyert, D.L., Mathews, T.J., Menacker, F., Strobino, D.M., Guyer, B. (2006) Annual summary of vital statistics: 2004. Pediatrics, 117(1):168-183.


Hogue, C.J., Vasquez, C. (2002) Toward a strategic approach for reducing disparities in infant mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 92 (4), 552-6.

Lesser, A.J. (1985). The origin and development of maternal and child health programs in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 75 (6), 590-598.

Ambalavanan, N., Carlo, W.A., Bobashev, G., Mathias, E., Liu, B., Poole, K., Fanaroff, A.A., Stoll, B.J., Ehrenkranz, R., Wright, L.L., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (2005) Prediction of death for extremely low birth weight neonates. Pediatrics, 116(6):1367-1373.

Kotelchuck, M. (2006) Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring systems (PRAMS): possible new roles for a national MCH data system. Public Health Reports, 121(1):6-10.

Lecture 2

Epidemiology of Infant Morality I: Terminology and Immediate Causes of Infant Mortality


Hogue, C.J., Vasquez, C. (2002) Toward a strategic approach for reducing disparities in infant mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 92 (4), 552-6.

Sowards KA. (1999) What is the leading cause of infant mortality? A note on the interpretation of official statistics. American Journal of Public Health. 89(11): 1752-4.

Kramer, M.S., Barros, F.C., Demissie, K., Liu, S., Kiely, J., Joseph, K.S. (2005) Does reducing infant mortality depend on preventing low birthweight? An analysis of temporal trends in the Americas. Paediatric & Perinatal Epidemiology, 19(6):445-451.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2006) Improved national prevalence estimates for 18 selected major birth defects - United States, 1999-2001. MMWR, 54(51):1301-1305.

Klebanoff, M.A., Schulsinger, C., Mednick, B.R., Secher, N.J. (1997). Pre-term and small-for-gestational-age birth across generations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 176 (3), 521-525.

Lecture 3

Epidemiology of Infant Mortality II: Person, Place, and Time


Ananth, C.V. and Platt, R.W. (2004) Reexamining the effects of gestational age, fetal growth and maternal smoking on neonatal mortality. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 4: 22-32.

Kramer, M.S. (2003) The epidemiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes: An overview. Journal of Nutrition, 133: 1592S-1696S.


McIntire D.D., Bloom S.L., Casey B.M., Leveno K.J. (1999) Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infant. New England Journal of Medicine. 340(16): 1234-8.

Misra, D.P., Ananth, C.V. (2002) Infant mortality among singletons and twins in the United States during 2 decades: Effects of Maternal Age. Pediatrics, 110 (6), 1163-1168.

Lecture 4

Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding Infant Mortality


Mosley, W.H. and Chen, L.C. (1984) An analytical framework for the study of child survival in developing countries. Population and Development Review, 10 (supplement), 25-45.

O'Campo, P., Xue, X., Wang, M., Caughy, M.O. (1997) Neighborhood risk factors for low birthweight in Baltimore City: A multi-level analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 87 (7), 1113-1118.

James, Serman A. (1993) Racial and ethnic differences in infant mortality and low birth weight: A psychosocial critique. Annals of Epidemiology, 3(2), 130-136.

Lockwood, C.J. (1994) Recent adavances in elucidating the pathogenesis of preterm delivery, the detection of patients at risk, and preventative therapies. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6, 7-18.


Herek, G. (1995). Development of a theoretical framework and rationale for your research proposal. In W. Pequequat and E. Stover (Eds.). How to write a successful research grant: A guide for social and behavioral scientists. New York: Plenum.

Earp J., Ennett S. (1991). Conceptual models for health education research and practice. Health Education Research, 163-171. Wise, P.H. (1993) Racial differences in preterm delivery: Developing a new research paradigm. Confronting racial disparities in infant mortality: Reconciling science and politics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, suppl. 9 (6), 7-16.

Lecture 5

Strategies for Reducing Low Birth Weight and Infant Mortality in the U.S.


Hein H.A., and Lofgren, M.A. (1999) The changing pattern of neonatal mortality in a regionalized system of perinatal care: A current update. Pediatrics. 104(5 Pt 1): 1064-9.

Noble, L. (2003) Developments in neonatal technology continue to improve infant outcomes. Pediatric Annals, 32(9): 595-603.

Strobino D., O'Campo P., Schoendorf K., et al. (1995) A strategic framework for the reduction of infant mortality: Implications for healthy start. Milbank Quarterly, 73, 507-33.


Anonymous. (1995). Programs to reduce unintended pregnancy. In S.S. Brown and L. Eisenberg (Eds.). The Best Intentions. Unintended pregnancy and the well-being of children and families (pp. 219-249). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Kogan, M.D., Alexander, G.R., Kotelchuck, M., and Nagey, D.A. (1994). Relation of the content of prenatal care to the risk of low birth weight. JAMA, 271 (17), 1340-1345.

Mikkola, K., Ritari, N., Tommiska, V., Salokorpi, T., Lehtonen, L., Tammela, O., Paakkonen, L., Olsen, P., Korkman, M., Fellman, V. (2005) Neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years of age of a national cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who were born in 1996-1997. Pediatrics, 116(6):1391-1400.

Lecture 6

International and National Approaches to the Problem of Infant Mortality


Hyder, A.A., Wali, S.A., McGuckin, J. (2003) The burden of disease from neonatal mortality: A review of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. BJOG, 110 (10), 894-901.

Macinko, J.A., Shi, L., Starfield, B. (2004) Wage inequality, the health system, and infant mortality in wealthy industrialized countries, 1970-1996. Social Science Medicine, 58(2): 279-92.

Rodwin, V.G., Neuberg, L.G. (2005) Infant mortality and income in 4 world cities: New York , Longon, Paris, and Tokyo. American Journal of Public Health, 95(1): 86-90.


Kramer, M.S., Demissie, K., Yang, H., Platt, R.W., Sauve, R., Liston, R. (2000) The contribution of mild and moderate perterm birth to infant mortality. JAMA, 284 (7), 843-849.

Lecture 7

Current Controversies in Perinatal Health


Freedman, M.A. (1997) The quality of data reported on birth certificates. American Journal of Public Health, 87 (11), 1867.

Martin, J.A. and Park, M.M. (1999) Trends in twin and triplet births: 1980-1997. National Vital Statistics Reports, 47 (24), 1-16.

Misra, D. and Guyer, B. (1998) Benefits and limitations of prenatal care: From counting visits to measuring content. JAMA, 279 (20), 1661-1662.

Lecture 8

Racial Differences in Pregnancy Outcomes


Hessol, N.A., Fuentes-Afflick, E. (2005) Ethnic differences in neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Pediatrics, 115(1):e44-51.

Morales, L.S., Staiger, D., Horbar, J.D., Carpenter, J., Kenny, M., Geppert, J., Rogowski, J. (2005) Mortality among very low-birthweight infants in hospitals serving minority populations. American Journal of Public Health, 95(12):2206-2212.

Morse, S.B., Wu, S.S., Ma, C., Ariet, M., Resnick, M., Roth, J. (2006) Racial and gender differences in the viability of extremely low birth weight infants: a population-based study. Pediatrics, 117(1):e106-112.


Zuvekas, A., Wells, B.L., Lefkowitz, B. (2000). Mexican American infant mortality rate: implications for public policy. Journal of Health Care of the Poor and Underserved. 11(2), 243-57.

Lecture 9

Measures of Neonatal Morbidity


Alexander, G.R. (1997) Annotation: The accurate measurement of gestational age-A critical step toward improving fetal death reporting and perinatal health. American Journal of Public Health, 87 (8), 1278-1279.

Morris, S.S., Black, R.E., Tomaskovic, L. (2003) Predicting the distribution of under-five deaths by cause in countries without adequate vital registration systems. International Journal of Epidemiology. 32(6):1041-51.

van de Riet JE, Vandenbussche FP, Le Cessie S,Keirse MJ. (1999) Newborn assessment and long-term adverse outcome: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 180(4): 1024-9.


Hales, S., Howden-Chapman, P., Salmond, C., Woodward, A., Mackenbach, J. (1999). National infant mortality rates in relation to gross national product and distribution of income. Lancet. 354, 2047.

Zemach, R. (1984) What the vital statistics system can and cannot do. American Journal of Public Health, 74 (8), 756-758.

Lecture 10

Evaluating the Prevention of Infant Mortality


Smith, G.C., Wood, A.M., Pell, J.P., Dobbie, R. (2006) Sudden infant death syndrome and complications in other pregnancies. Lancet, 366(9503):2107-2111.

Misra, D.P., Guyer, B., Allston, A. (2003) Integrated perinatal health framework: A multiple determinants model with a life span approach. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25 (1), 65-75.

Strobino, D.M., Misra, D.P., Grason, H. (2004) The FIMR Evaluation: Objectives, concepts, frameworks, and methods. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 8(4): 205-215.


Collaborative Group on Pre-term Birth Prevention, (1993). Multicenter randomized controlled trial of a pre-term birth prevention program. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 169, 352-366.

Hamvas, A., Wise, P.H., Yang, R.K., Wampler, N.S., Noguchi, A., Maurer, M.M., Walentik, C.A., Schramm, W.F., Cole, F. S. (1996) The influence of the wider use of surfactant therapy on neonatal mortality among blacks and whites. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 1635-1640.

Palta, M., Weinstein, M.R., McGuiness, G., Gabbert, D., Brady, W., and Peters, M.E. (1994). A population study. Mortality and morbidity after availability of surfactant therapy. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 148, 1295-1301.

Lecture 11

The Delaware Infant Mortality Task Force: A Case Study Addressing Infant Mortality and Disparities


Maryland Commission on Infant Mortality Prevention (1998) Closing the Gap. Addressing the disparity of infant mortality among African-American and white infants: Approaches for clinicians and policy makers.

Centers for Disease Control (2003) Increasing infant morality among very low birthweight infants- Delaware, 1994-2000. MMWR, 52(36), 862-866.

Lecture 12

Public Policy and Infant Mortality


Almeida, C., Braveman, P., Gold, M.R., Szwarcwald, C.L., Mendes Ribeiro, J., Miglionico, A., Millar, J.S., Porto, S., Do Rosario Costa, N., Ortun Rubio, V., Segall, M., Starfield, B., Travessos, C., Uga, A., Valente, J., Viacava, F. (2001) Methodological concerns and recommendations on policy consequence of the World Health Report 2000, The Lancet, 357, 1692-1697.

Murray, C., Frenk, J. (2001) World Health Report 2000: a step towards evidence-based health policy. The Lancet, 357, 1698-1700.

Navarro, V. (2001) World Health Report 2000: responses to Murray and Frank. The Lancet, 357, 1701-1702.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2000) The World Health Report 2000: Overview. Geneva, WHO.

Adam, T., Lim, S.S., Mehta, S., Bhutta, Z.A., Fogstad, H., Mathai, M., Zupan, J., Darmstadt, G.L. (2005) Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies for maternal and neonatal health in developing countries. BMJ, 331(7525):1107.