Course: STI Prevention: Using Epidemiology to Inform Policy and Program

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Topic Readings

O'Brien D, Royalance F. City considers unusual tactic against STDs: Patients would provide medications to partners. Baltimore Sun March 15, 2007

Bruckner H, Bearman P. After the promise: The STD consequences of adolescent virginity pledges. J Adolescent Health 2005;36:271-278

Klausner KD, et al. Tracing a syphilis outbreak through cyberspace. JAMA. 2000;284:447-449

The Basics
Lecture 1: Introduction to the Course: Housekeeping and How We Use Public Health

Institute of Medicine. Executive Summary. In: Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1997.

National Coalition of STD Directors. STD Program Core Components and Strategies, 2006.

WHO Guidelines for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003

Lecture 2: Epidemiologic Basis of STD Control: Introduction and STD Surveillance

Donavan B. Sexually transmissible infections other than HIV. Lancet 2004;363:545-56

Division of STD Surveillance. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, November 2006.

Lecture 3: STD Control: Introduction to Mathematical Models and STDs

Rothenberg R. Maintenance of endemicity in urban environments: a hypothesis linking risk, network structure and geography. Sex Transm Infect 2007;83:10-15

Golden MR, Manhart LE. Innovative approaches to the prevention and control of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:513-540

Holmes KK, et al. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted
infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004;82(6):454-461

Stanberry LR, Rosenthal SL. Progress in vaccines for sexually transmitted diseases. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:477-490

Fisman DN. Syphilis resurgent in China. Lancet 2007;369:84-85

Lecture 4: Introduction to STI Policy and Programming

Glasier A, Gulmezoglu AM, Schmid GP, Moreno CG, Van Look PFA. Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death. Lancet 2006;368:1595-1607


STI Specific Epidemiology
Lecture 5: Gonorrhea and Chlamydia

Turner CF, et al. Untreated gonococcal and chlamydial infection in a probability sample of adults. JAMA 2002;287:726-733

Peterman TA. High Incidence of New Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Year following a Sexually Transmitted Infection: A Case for Rescreening. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:564-572

Ghanem KG, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the inevitable epidemic. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:351-365

Miller WC, et al. Prevalence of Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections Among Young Adults in the United States. JAMA 2004;291:2229-2236

Peipert JF. Genital Chlamydial Infections. NEJM 2003;349:2424-30

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Chlamydial Infection. Recommendations and Rationale. Am J Prev Med 2001;20(3S):90-94

Nelson HD, Helfand M. Screening for Chlamydial Infection. Am J Prev Med 2001;20(3S):95-107

Lecture 6: Vaginitis and PID

Erbelding EJ, Zenilman J. Toward Better Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. NEJM 2005;352:7

Golden MR, et al. Effect of Expedited Treatment of Sex Partners on Recurrent or Persistent Gonorrhea or Chlamydial Infection. NEJM 2005;352:676-85

Marrazzo JM. Mucopurulent Cervicitis: No Longer Ignored, but Still Misunderstood. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:333-349

Ross JDC. Is Mycoplasma genitalium a Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease? Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:407-413

Sobel JD. What's New in Bacterial Vaginosis and Trichomoniasis? Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:387-406

Lecture 7: Syphilis

Niccolai LM, et al. Early Syphilis Among Men in Connecticut: Epidemiologic and Spatial Patterns. Sex Transm Dis 2007;34:183-187.

Golden MR, et al. Update on syphilis: Resurgence of an old problem. JAMA 2003;290:1510-1514

Peterman TA, et al. The Changing Epidemiology of Syphilis. Sex Transm Dis 2005;32:S4-S10

Lecture 8: Update on Genital Herpes

New York State Department of Health. Herpes simplex virus in the newborn. June 2006.

New York State Department of Health. Circumcision Protocol Regarding the Prevention of Neonatal Herpes Transmission. November 2006.

Purnick J. Taking a Stand on a Rite with Hazards. New York Times Jan 9, 2006

New York City Health Commissioner. 2005 Health Alert #46: Neonatal herpes infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 following circumcision with oral suctioning. December 13, 2005.

Gesundheit B, et al. Neonatal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection After Jewish Ritual Circumcision: Modern Medicine and Religious Tradition. Pediatrics 2004;114:e259-e263

Patel R, Rampalo A. Managing Patients with Genital Herpes and their Sexual Partners. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:427-438

Tanne JH. Ultra-Orthodox Jews criticised over circumcision practice. BMJ 2006;332:137

Lecture 9: Genital Human Papillomavirus

Cox T, Cuzick J. HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening: From evidence to policies. Gynecologic Oncology 2006;103:8-11

Milloy C. District's HPV Proposal Tinged With Ugly Assumptions. Washington Post January 10, 2007

Levine S, Harris HR. Wave of Support for HPV Vaccination of Girls; D.C., Md. , Va. Proposals Part of National Effort to Prevent Cervical Cancer. Washington Post January 12, 2007

Saslow D, et al. American Cancer Society Guideline for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Use to Prevent Cervical Cancer and Its Precursors. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57;7-28

Burchell AN, et al. Chapter 6: Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of genital HPV infection. Vaccine 2006;24S3:S52-S61

Friedman LS, et al. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: A Position Statement of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolescent Health 2006;39:620

Gravitt PE, Jamshidi R. Diagnosis and Management
of Oncogenic Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:439-458

Allan A. Don't rush to mandate HPV vaccine. Baltimore Sun February 8, 2007.

Lecture 10: HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings. MMWR 2006;55:RR-14

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC HIV/AIDS Science Facts: CDC Releases Revised HIV Testing Recommendations in Healthcare Settings. September 2006

Brown D. US Recommends Routine Testing For the AIDS virus. Washington Post September 22, 2006.

Reynolds SJ, et al. Developments in STD/HIV Interactions: The Intertwining Epidemics of HIV and HSV-2. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:415-425

Lecture 11: STD Diagnostic Tests

Gaydos CA, et al. Internet-Based Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to Reach Nonclinic Populations With Mailed Self-Administered Vaginal Swabs. Sex Transm Dis 2006;33:451-457

Donegan E, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Laboratory Testing in Resource-Limited Countries
Steps to Improve Use Effective Testing and to Ensure Diagnostic Capacity. Sex Transm Dis 2003;30:905-908

Gaydos CA. Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: Practice and Applications. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:367-386

STI Policy and Program in Various Contexts
Lecture 12: Epidemiologic Basis for STI Policy and Programming: Interventions

Manhart LE, Holmes KK. Randomized Controlled Trials of Individual-Level,Population-Level, and Multilevel Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections: What Has Worked? J Infect Dis 2005;191(Suppl 1):S7-24

Cleland J, et al. Family planning: the unfi nished agenda. Lancet 2006;368:1810-1827

Zenilman J. Behavioral Interventions: Rationale, Measurement, and Effectiveness. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2005;19:541-562

Lecture 13: STDs in the International Setting World Health Organization. Consultation on STI interventions for preventing HIV: appraisal of the evidence. July 2006
Lecture 14: Behavioral Interventions

Halifors DD, et al. Sexual and Drug Behavior Patterns and HIV and STD Racial Disparities: The Need for New Directions. Am J Public Health 2007;97:125-132

Lyles CM, et al. Best-Evidence Interventions: Findings From a Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Interventions for US Populations at High Risk, 2000-2004. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:133-143

Philpott A, et al. Promoting protection and pleasure: amplifying the effectiveness of barriers against sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. Lancet 2006;368:2028-2031

Mayaud P, Mabey D. Approaches to the control of sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: old problems and modern challenges. Sex Transm Infect 2004;80:174-182

Lecture 15: Adolescents and STIs

Ellen JM, et al. Perceived Social Cohesion and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sex Transm Dis 2004;31:117-122

Summary: Development of STI Policy and Program
Lecture 16: Epidemiologic Basis for STI Policy and Programming: Development of Policy and Programming

Zenilman J. Policy and Behavioral Interventions
for STDs. In: Behavioral Interventions for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Aral SO, Douglas JM Jr, eds. Lipshutz JA, assoc ed. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC; 2007.

Society for Adolescent Medicine. Abstinence-only education policies and programs: A position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;38:83-87

Santelli JS, et al. Abstinence and abstinence-only education: A review of U.S. policies and programs. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;38:72-81

UK Department of Health. The national strategy for sexual health and HIV implementation action plan. 26 June 2006.