Course: Staging

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Course Description

Costs and costing information is an important and useful input to the routine planning, budgeting, management, and implementation or rollout of an effective immunization program. This information is also needed when conducting economic evaluation studies to determine what, when and how to introduce new vaccines or which implementation approach/strategy would achieve better and effective coverage. The costs are not generalizable from one country to another as vaccine schedules, target populations, strategies etc. vary by country. For this reason, costs are country-specific and should be obtained and estimated locally. This module provides information on the cost profiles of routine immunization programs and supplementary immunization activities (SIA) using different country examples. We will learn how to cost existing programs, specific interventions, new vaccine introduction, and possible data sources to conduct such analysis and how to report and use the results for policy decisions.

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Course Objectives

At the conclusion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Define different costs and other concepts as used in costing and costing studies
  • Identify and describe different costs and cost components involved in routine immunization programs
  • Distinguish between vaccine and non-vaccine costs (supply versus operational or service delivery costs)
  • Categorize costs based on varying criteria and demonstrate their use in planning and budgeting
  • Estimate costs and resource requirements for routine immunization or vaccine program or incremental costs of new vaccine introduction.
  • Demonstrate how to present costing results and data for use in planning and decision making
  • Review and discuss potential country level data sources and assumptions for estimating routine program cost and incremental costs due to new vaccine introduction.
  • Apply different costing techniques or approaches in evaluating different immunization strategies or vaccines
  • Discuss which line-item and activity costs tend to be most significant for immunization programs and new vaccine introduction in low and middle income countries


Course readings are listed on the Readings page.


There are three exercises to complete for this course.

Overall Course Expectations

  • Complete pre-readings (Text Book and Papers) and prepare for class
  • Complete all course assignments and milestones on-time
  • Actively participate in class discussions