Course: Water Sanitation Needs in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

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Session Topic Readings
1 General Overview of Water and Sanitation

Esrey et al. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bull. WHO 1991;69(5):609-21. Clasen TF and Cairncross S. Household water management: refining the dominant paradigm. Trop. Med. Int. Hlth. 2004 Feb; 9(2):187-91.

2 Dysentary in Lisungwe Camp, 1993

Brisccoe J. Intervention Studies and the Definition of Dominant Transmission Routes. Am. J. of Epi. 1984;120(3):449-455. Shuval HI et al. Effect of investments in water supply and sanitation on health status: a threshold-saturation theory. Bull. WHO 1981;59(2):243-248.

3 Water Shortage in Ngara Camps, 1996 Tumwine JK. Et al. Diarrhoea and effects of different water sources, sanitation and hygiene behavious in East Africa. Trop. Med. And Int. Hlth. 2002;7(9):750-756.
4 Randomized Interventions - Three Tales from Three Continents

Roberts L. et al. Keeping clean water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial. Bull. WHO 2001;79(4):280-287. Clasen TF, Bastable A. Faecal contamination of drinking water during collection and household storage: the need to extend protection to the point of use. J. Water Health. 2003Sept; 1(3):109-15.

5 Typhoid in Tajikistan Semenza JC et al. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1998;59(6):941-946.
6 Conducting Evaluations

Roberts, L. Estimating Populations, Water Consumption, and Sanitation Coverage. IRC, NY. 1999. Ezzati M et al. Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies. J. Epidemiology Community Health. 2005 Jan;(59)1:15-22.

7 Cholera in Goma, Zaire, 1994

Emergency medical aid is not for amateurs [editorial] Lancet. 1996;348(9039):1393. Saddique AK et al. Why treatment centres failed to prevent cholera deaths among Rwandan refugees in Goma, Zaire. Lancet. 1995;345:359-361. Van Damme W. Do refugees belong in camps? Experiences from Goma and Guinea. Lancet. 1995; 346: 360-362. Roberts L. & Toole M. Cholera deaths in Goma. Lancet. 1995:346:1431.